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  Global Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Volume 1, Issue 1 (2010) pp. 1-12
  Research Article
Pyrolysis gas chromatography - mass spectrometry studies of spiro phosphate esters containing phenol and substituted phenol moieties
  Nagarajan David Mathana, Vijayakumar Sarasvathya, Thangamani Rajkumara, Arunachalam Thamaraichelvanb, Durairaj Ponrajuc, Chinnaswamy Thangavel Vijayakumara*  
a Department of Polymer Technology, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, S.P.G.C. Nagar, K.Vellakulam Post 625701, India
b Post graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Thiagarajar College (Autonomous), Madurai 625009, India
c Radiological Safety Division, Department of Atomic Energy, IGCAR, Kalpakkam 603102, India


Intumescent material, spiro phosphates play an important role in flame retardancy. Several aromatic spiro phosphates were synthesized by reacting 3,9-dichloro-2,4,8,10-teroxa-3,9-diphosphaspiro-5,5-undecane-3,9-dioxide with phenol (SDP), p-cresol (SDPC), 2,6-dimethylphenol (SDDMP) and 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (SDTMP). The chemical structure of the synthesized materials was confirmed by Fourier Transform-Infra Red spectral studies. Pyrolysis GC-MS technique was used to investigate the isothermal degradation (500 °C / 5.0 min) products formed from these spiro phos-phates. Methacrolein, phenol, p-cresol, 2,6-dimethylphenol and 2,4,6-trimethyphenol were observed as the major degradation products. Compared to the evolution of phenol from SDP, the evolution of p-cresol, 2,6-dimethylphenol and 2,4,6-trimethyphenol from SDPC, SDDMP and SDTMP respectively were low. The position and the amount of methyl substitution in the benzene ring have a strong influence on the amount of substituted phenols formed during the pyrolysis. Formation of mono-, di- and tri- methyl substituted phenols from SDP, di- and tri-substituted phenols from SDPC and tri-substituted phenols from SDDMP during degradation can be explained through the formation of phenol-formaldehyde resin type matrix. Identification of several aromatics and condensed aromatics confirmed the isomerisation and polymerization reactions of thermally reactive and highly strained spiro-[2,2]-pent-1,3-diene formed during the pyrolysis of spiro phosphates.

  Intumescence; Spiro phosphates; FTIR; Thermal degradation; Pyrolysis GC-MS; Degradation mechanism  

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