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  Global Journal of Analytical Chemistry. Volume 1, Issue 3 (2010) pp. 244-261
  Review Article
Advanced capillary electrophoresis techniques in the analytical quantification of drugs, metabolites and biomarkers in biological samples
  Marcello Locatelli*, Giuseppe Carlucci  
Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi “G. D’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Via dei Vestini 31, 66100 Chieti (CH), Italy
  Capillary electrophoresis offers several advantages in terms of higher chromatographic resolution, faster analysis, smaller sample volume required, lower cost due to very cheap capillaries (if compared to expensive HPLC or GC columns) and to low organic solvent consumption. It is a powerful assay in particular applied to biological samples analyses (blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid) and especially where a small amount of sample is available, such as pharmaceutical and biomedical analyses. For these reasons this technique is suitable to quantify drugs, metabolites and biomarker in biological fluid, where are required LOD and/or LOQ values at lower μg/L range. In addition, under special condition, the technique can be applied also in presence of other sample constituents like protein or other macromolecules. The only limit of this method is represented by smaller sample volume that implies a relative poor LODs values mainly caused by the small injection volume and, when UV detection is used, the short optical path length attributable to the low inner diameter of the capillary. This review intends to explore the new frontiers of capillary electrophoresis techniques in terms of sensitivity improvement, bioanalytical (and pharmacological) applications, instrument configurations especially underlining its versatility and potentiality.
  Capillary Electrophoresis; Biological samples; Drugs; Metabolites; Biomarker  

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