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  Global Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 2012, 2: 13
  Research Article
Preparation of titanium dioxide embedded ultrafiltration membrane: Properties and fouling evaluation
  H. P. Ngang, A. L. Ahmad, B. S. Ooi  
School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan 14300, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  In this study, the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-Titanium dioxide (TiO2) mixed-matrix membranes were prepared via phase inversion technique. The properties of PVDF-TiO2 mixed-matrix membranes were characterized based on contact angle and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The hydrophilicity of the mixed-matrix membrane was greatly enhanced which is a desired property of membrane for water purification. However, at higher content of TiO2, membrane wettability might be impaired due to the roughness created by the agglomeration of TiO2 on the surface. The methylene blue removal by mixed-matrix membrane in the absence of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) surfactant is poor due to separation by adsorption mechanism only. However, with the presence of 20 mM surfactant in feed solution dye removal efficiency was increased dramatically. Membrane with 1 wt% TiO2 exhibited maximum dye removal. Optimum TiO2 concentration was found around 3 wt%, concentration higher than 3 wt% will result in TiO2 agglomeration which is not a desired phenomenon because of pore blocking, membrane defect and reduced catalytic surface area.
  Polyvinylidene fluoride; Titanium dioxide; Mixed-matrix membranes; Methylene blue; Sodium dodecylsulfate  

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