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  Physics Express 2014, 4: 18
  Research Article
Multiple-beam generator with graded negative index-based photonic crystals
  Yeping Zhang, Qingyi Zhu, Yongqi Fu  
School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, Sichuan Province, P. R. China
  The multiple-beam generator constructed on the basis of graded negative refractive index of photonic crystals (PCs ) which is composed of hybrid lattices of triangular and square lattice respectively is proposed in this paper. The square lattice-based PCs are designed to directly divide the incident light into several branch beams and the PCs with graded negative refractive index as well as triangular lattice are considered and adopted for the purpose of focusing each branch beam. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm for computational numerical calculation, the results demonstrate that the beam generator has a good focusing effect (focused beam spot size at site of full width at half maximum (FWHM) is in the order of half wavelength, λ/2), and intensity distribution of the focused beam is uniform. The designed generator has the advantages of small volume, and is capable of being integrated easily in micro-optical systems by means of conventional semiconductor manufacturing process.
  Multiple-beam generator; Photonic crystals; Hybrid lattices; FDTD algorithm  

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