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  Chemical Sensors 2011, 1: 9
  Review Article
 
Calixarene based chemical sensors
  Kushal Sharma, Peter J. Cragg  
     
School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Brighton BN2 4GJ, UK
   
  Abstract  
  Calixarenes have seen widespread use as receptors for cations, anions and neutral molecules. Incorporation of thoughtfully designed binding motifs and chemical groups that respond to analyte complexation has given these macrocycles further applications as highly selective chemical sensors. This review briefly describes the history of the calixarenes and their nomenclature before examining how they have been used as chemical sensors or as modifiers in analytical devices. The review covers colorimetric calixarene sensors, calixarenes that give fluorescent responses to analytes via PET, PCT, FRET and excimer activity, electrochemically active calixarenes, calixarenes as modifiers on quartz crystal microbalance electrodes, and considers the potential for calixarene sensors to be used in biomedicine.
     
  Keywords  
  Calixarene; Colorimetry; Fluorescence; Electrochemistry; Quartz crystal microbalance; Chemical sensor  
     
   
   
   
   
     

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