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  Journal of Nanoscience Letters 2012, 2: 15
  Review Article
Upconversion nanoparticles for biological imaging
  Huan Xu, Liang Cheng, Chao Wang, Zhuang Liu  
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, China
  In the past few years, rare earth upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been recognized as novel nano-probes for biological imaging, owing to their advantages in large anti-stokes shifts, sharp emission bands, free of autofluorescence, no photobleaching, and high imaging penetration depth. This review is focused on the recent work in the development of UCNP-based nano-probes for biomedical imaging applications. The synthetic methods and surface modification strategies of UCNPs will be summarized first. In vitro cell labeling and in vivo animal imaging with UCNPs will then be discussed. Lastly, we will introduce the latest process in this area regarding multi-modality biomedical imaging with UCNPs. The rapid development in this emerging field could bring novel opportunities to the next generation of optical imaging in biomedicine.
  Upconversion; Nanoprobes; Synthesis; Surface modification; Biomedical imaging; Multimodal imaging  

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