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  Journal of Nanoscience Letters 2013, 3: 21
  Review Article
Emerging field of self-assembled fluorescent organic dye nanoparticles
  Andrey S. Klymchenko  
Laboratoire de Biophotonique et Pharmacologie, UMR 7213 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, Faculté de Pharmacie, 74, Route du Rhin, 67401 ILLKIRCH Cedex, France
  Due to exceptional brightness compared to organic dyes, the fluorescent nanoparticles attracted strong attention in the recent years, keeping great promise for the bioimaging applications. Particularly exciting possibilities are offered by fluorescent organic dye nanoparticles (FOD-NPs), which are nanostructured assemblies (aggregates) of specially designed organic dyes. Due to their organic origin, they can be biodegradable, allowing their biological applications up to animal level. The review presents the state of the art on this emerging field of FOD-NPs. It analyses the existing methods of their fabrication based on precipitation, ion-association and self-assembly. To achieve high fluorescence brightness, the key challenge is to overcome self-quenching between the closely located fluorophores within the nanoparticle. The recent successful examples of different dye families capable to form FOD-NPs are presented. This new field is clearly underexplored and there is an urgent need to develop new FOD-NPs characterized by controlled uniform size, high stability and fluorescence brightness together with possibility of bio-functionalization.
  Fluorescent organic dye nanoparticles; Self-assembly; Self-quenching; J-aggregates; H-aggregates; Biological imaging  

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