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  Sci. Lett. J. 2012, 1: 22  
  Research Article
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An attempt to use the house fly adult as a bioindicator for assessing potential exposure to household pesticides in residential locations  
  Sameeh A. Mansoura, Reham I. Mohameda, Laila S. A. Hamoudab  
a Environmental Toxicology Research Unit (ETRU), Pesticide Chemistry Department, National Research Centre (NRC), Tahrir Str., Dokki, Cairo 12311, Egypt
b Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Ain shams University, Cairo, Egypt

  The living character of the house fly, Musca domestica, makes the insect in frequent exposure to environmental contaminants such as household pesticides. It has many desirable properties in favor of its usage as a bioindicator/biomarker for detection of environmental pollutants. In the present investigation, adult flies were collected from different regions in Greater Cairo, namely: El-Dokki, El-Maadi, El-Sayida Zainab and Helwan; where their susceptibility to certain insecticides were measured and compared with a laboratory susceptible strain. The resistance ratio (RR), based on topical LD50 values, revealed higher tolerance of the field strains against the bioassayed insecticides. For example, Helwan strain showed RR as much as 2.65, 1.15, 1.96 and 1.55 times of lab strain against methomyl, flufenoxuron, deltamethrin and chlorpyrifos, respectively. Also, compared to the susceptible strain, the field strains exercised higher protein content, higher glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activity, and lower acetyl cholinesterase activity (AChE). All the measured parameters were found to vary from an insect strain to another based on the "socio-demographic features" of the surveyed regions. In light of the collective findings of the present investigation, the studied regions could be arranged in a descending order with respect to the potential of toxic stress to the existing house fly populations: Helwan (industrial location) > El-Sayida Zainab (highly populated location) > El-Dokki (mixed location) > El-Maadi (Highly civilized location). The selected insecticides are frequently used for combating household pests, and thus the house fly adult may act as a bioindicator for assessing the potential use of these toxicants in residential locations.  
  Household pesticides; Musca domestica; Bioindicator; Resistance ratio; Biochemical alteration  
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